Livestock transport exposes animals to challenging environmental conditions that can result in welfare compromise. During road transport, sheep can be exposed to a high temperature in combination with a high humidity, expressed as a temperature-humidity index (THI), that can lead to thermal stress (Fisher et al., 2002; Fisher et al., 2004). In practice, these conditions can result in mortalities. Lambs are particularly susceptible. Extreme conditions are more likely to occur on journeys where there is little air movement through the stock crates. For example, during an inter-island ferry crossing, when vehicles carrying livestock are parked inside the hull of the ferry rather than on the outside deck (Fisher et al., 2004).

M, Stewart, Webster JR, LR Matthews, and AR Rogers

Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production, Volume 70, Palmerston North, 162-164, 2010
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