In this paper, we present our approach for 'clean, green and ethical' (CGE) management in small ruminants and dairy cattle, in a context that is relevant to New Zealand livestock industries. We will focus in particular on reproduction and nutrition aspects, with several possibilities for CGE management: 1) control of the timing of reproductive events by using socio-sexual signals (the 'male effect') to induce synchronised ovulation in females; 2) 'focus feeding' - short periods of nutritional supplementation that are precisely timed and specifically designed for each event in the reproductive process; 3) 'nutritional pharmacology' - a term that reflects the possibility of using forages containing 'bioactive' compounds to improve rumen health and efficiency with environmental benefits through the reduction of methane emissions from ruminants; 4) maximizing offspring survival by a combination of management and nutrition; 5) genetic selection for fertility, fecundity and temperament. These tools involve novel ways of manipulating the endogenous control systems and production of animals. Ultimately, the CGE tools can be cost-effective, increase productivity and, at the same time, greatly improve the image of meat and milk industries in society and the marketplace.
Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production, Volume 69, Christchurch, 140-147, 2009
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