The behaviour of 7476 calves transported on double- or triple- decker trucks was studied during unloading. Recorded behaviour was classified into 2 categories (upright or not upright) and the frequencies of these at three ramp slopes (4.2, 12 and 18.8 ) are presented. The proportions of animals upright on the 3 slopes (low, medium and high) were 93, 74 and 20%. On average, 100 calves were unloaded in 5.3, 7.7 and 7.1 min down the low, medium and high slopes, respectively. Improvements in welfare of bobby calves and probably reduced bruising would result if ramp slopes were kept at less than about 12 so that most animals could remain upright.
Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production, Volume 52, , 37-40, 1992
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