Lack of breeds suitable for commercial dairying is a constraint in Developing Countries (LDCs); however there is some progress. All Latin American Countries have nucleus herds of Holstein or Friesian, compared to 71% of Asian and 52% of African countries. The potential for more exports of animals to LDCs is high, but success will depend on support from exporters in their management. Holsteins born in LCDs will have a body weight at maturity about 125 kg (500-550 kg) lower than expected, lactation milk yield will be 30-50% lower, calving intervals 10-15% longer, age at first calving 25% later and duration of herd life .5 to 1.2 parturitions less. This breed needs feeding at least the equivalent of 2.2 multiples of maintenance in TDN. At this level milk yield will average near 6000 kg, calving interval 410-420 d, age at first calving 29-31 mo, fertility will be 1.8 services per conception and herd life 2.6-3.0 parturitions. This should still result in acceptable levels in both biological and economic efficiency. Imbalances in feeding, foot problems, seasonal breeding and milking sanitation appear among the most pressing problems.
Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production, Volume 51, , 423-428, 1991
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