AB: Subsistence village livestock farmers in the eastern provinces farm approximately 30% of the sheep and cattle of Turkey. Stock are housed for winter and grazed on communally owned and managed pastures for the remainder of the year. Typically farmers have 1 to 6 cows and 30 to 100 sheep or goats. A survey of 91 farmers showed that 55% of the cattle were of the local Anatolian breed and 37% were of exotic cross. Calving interval averaged 12.5 months, excluding the 10% barren cows. Female progeny were retained as herd replacements, males were sold between 8 and 18 months old to specialist cattle finishers who feed cattle indoors and aim to make a US$50 to US$120 margin per beast in a 4 to 6 month period. Sale of surplus lambs and milk products are the main sources of income for sheep farmers. Flocks averaged 80% to 100% lambing with lamb mortality ranging between 5% and 40%, depending on the level of winter feeding. Technology exists in Turkey for the improvement of winter feeding, and intensive lamb finishing, but technology transfer is constrained lack of experienced staff and limited training in livestock production of extension staff.
Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production, Volume 54, , 189-192, 1994
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